Paper Abstracts

Outdoor creation education

J.L. Albert

Discipline: Education

Abstract: Outdoor creation education is critical for encouraging and equipping the saints. A well-organized wilderness classroom opens the eyes of the learner in a unique and inspiring way. The learner gains the heart to love God and others more deeply. The learner also develops the skills necessary to impact others with humble confidence. There are many opportunities right outside our doors to help others engage the wonder of God's creation. With he proper structure, outdoor creation education empowers the teacher and the learner in profound ways, oftentimes unachievable within the traditional classroom.

Paleobotany Supports the Floating Mat Model for the Origin of Carboniferous Coal Beds

S.A. Austin, R.W. Sanders

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: For three hundred years geologists and paleobotanists have been attempting to describe the process that deposited plant material that formed Carboniferous coal beds. Autochthonous and allochthonous explanations in the early Nineteenth Century showed how scientific methodology becomes involved in coal interpretation. Autochthonous modelers used the paleobotany-strata-petrology-environment method to argue that coal is a terrestrial swamp deposit. Allochthonous modelers used the petrology-strata-paleobotany-environment method to describe coal as a subaqueous deposit. The two methodologies are best displayed at the end of the Nineteenth Century in the consensus autochthonists versus the French School allochthonists. Three depositional models have been offered for the origin of coal: (1) peat swamp model, (2) drift model, and (3) floating mat model. Many paleobotany questions about lycopods and tree ferns had not been solved at the end of the Nineteenth Century, but the "floating mat model" offered a very robust path to direct research. Unfortunately, at the beginning of the Twentieth Century when the uniformitarian paradigm prevailed, the floating mat model was intentionally suppressed. Now new data from coal petrology indicate that Carboniferous coal is detrital having accumulated underwater, not as a terrestrial swamp deposit. New data and methodology from paleobotany (Sanders and Austin, 2018) show lycopsids and tree ferns were capable of forming living floating mats able to supporting the trunks. Paleobotany of coal plants should now be best understood as supporting a floating raft that deposited the detritus that now forms Carboniferous coal beds. We present here for the first time a three-hundred-year historical survey of the notion that coal accumulated from floating vegetation mats.

Exegetical analysis of Psalm 104:8

W.D. Barrick

Discipline: Bible

Abstract: This paper performs a detailed exegesis of Psalm 104:8 and its context (Psalm 104:5-10) in the original Hebrew to identify the timing and nature of the events about which the psalmist writes. The exegetical analysis includes the text's poetic structure and devices, as well as its grammar and vocabulary. That interpretive process results in some significant implications. The analysis of Psalm 104:8 in its context supports a possible reference to a global cataclysmic Flood. Therefore, the psalmist's declaration that "The mountains rose; the valleys sank down" might correspond with tectonic activity during and after the Flood. "To the place which You established for them" indicates the configuration of the earth's surface after an uplift of mountains and lowering of valleys.

Large Tsunamis and the Flood Sediment Record

J. Baumgardner

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: A daunting challenge for Flood geology is providing a credible explanation for how the staggering volume of fossil-bearing sediment was eroded, transported, and deposited in orderly patterns on the surface of the normally high-standing continents in only a few months' time. This paper applies numerical modeling to explore the question of whether repetitive giant tsunamis generated by catastrophic plate tectonics during the Genesis Flood can plausibly account for the Flood sediment record. The modeling suggests with reasonable parameter choices that tsunami-driven erosion during the Genesis Flood can produce considerable volumes of new sediment, that tsunami-driven pulses of turbulent water can transport this sediment vast distances across the continental surfaces, and that these hydrological processes generate sequences of laterally extensive layers often separated by erosional unconformities. The model incorporates a representation of the dynamic history of the continental blocks to explore the consequences of continental motions. It also includes an initial continental topography, with low elevations along the coasts and higher elevations inland. This computational study provides important insight regarding the primary source of the Flood water, how that water was able to cover the normally high-standing continent surface, what produced and sustained the water flow, primary sources of the sediment, primary means of sediment transport and deposition across the continent surface, why so little erosional channeling occurred between sediment layers, processes responsible for observed paleocurrent directions, and mechanisms responsible for the abundance of planar erosional features at many scales. It is vital to stress that the exploration described in this paper is still exceedingly limited in its realism relative to the actual earth and includes only a restricted subset of the processes in operation during the Flood cataclysm. Despite the limitations, it suggests strongly that tsunamis likely played a key role in producing the fossil-bearing sediment record we observe today.

Micas in cross-bedded sandstones

K. Borsch, J.H. Whitmore, R. Strom, G. Hartree

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: In our study of thin sections of the cross-bedded Coconino Sandstone, we discovered muscovite in almost every thin section and biotite in a lesser number of thin sections. This is surprising given that micas have not previously been reported in this deposit. The mica found is detrital in character thus is part of the depositional fabric. This led us to investigating other cross-bedded sandstones from around the world, all of which have been conventionally interpreted as wholly or partly eolian. Subsequent laboratory experiments provided some framework for understanding this discovery. Based on those experiments it was found that mica cannot survive more than a few days during continuous transport in a simulated eolian environment but can last more than a year with continuous transport in a simulated subaqueous environment. Modern ergs contain none to virtually no micas except in cases where mica sources (like granite outcrops, beach sand or fluvial sand) are located in the immediate vicinity (~<10 km) of the erg.

This paper catalogs and illustrates a large number of cross-bedded sandstones that contain mica (mostly muscovite) as an accessory mineral. The dominant conventional view is that these sandstones are eolian, but experimental data and field observations suggest otherwise. The presence of muscovite in cross-bedded sandstones can be used as one of many criteria to argue for subaqueous deposition of cross-bedded sandstones.

Y Chromosome Noah and mitochondrial Eve

R.W. Carter, S. Lee, J.C. Sanford

Discipline: Biology

Abstract: The existence of a literal Adam and Eve is hotly debated, even within the Christian body. Now that many full-length human Y (chrY) and mitochondrial (chrM) chromosome sequences have been sequenced and made publicly available, it may be possible to bring clarity to this question. We have used these data to comprehensively analyze the historical changes in these two chromosomes, starting with the sequences of people alive today, and working backwards to the ancestral sequence of the family groups to which they belong. The analyses of the chrY and chrM histories were done separately and in parallel. Remarkably, both analyses gave very similar results. First, the pattern displayed in both datasets supports a massive expansion of the human lineage, with multiple new branches forming from closely-related individuals. Second, for both chromosomes, the mutation rate along each branch has not been the same through time. Third, both phylogenetic trees display a starburst pattern that centers around specific historical individuals, nearly all of whom lived in the Middle East. Fourth, we can know with a very high degree of confidence the actual sequences of the historical individuals that gave rise to each branch in both family trees. Fifth, within a reasonable margin of error we can approximate the sequence of Y chromosome Adam/Noah and Mitochondrial Eve. Sixth, given a few reasonable assumptions, we can estimate the time to Y Chromosome Adam/Noah and Mitochondrial Eve. Both individuals lived less than 10,000 years ago, which is most consistent with a biblical timeframe. Lastly, recurrent mutations are extremely common, and many of them are associated with epigenetic CpG sites, meaning mutation accumulation is not free of environmental influence and many mutations may have accumulated in different lineages in parallel. The genetic evidence strongly suggests that Y Chromosome Adam/Noah and Mitochondrial Eve were not just real people, they were the progenitors of us all. In this light, there is every reason to believe that they were the Adam/Noah and Eve of the Bible.

Strength-reducing mechanisms in mantle rock during the Genesis Flood

N. Cho, M. Horstemeyer, J. Baumgardner, J. Sherburn

Discipline: Physics

Abstract: This paper reports our efforts to model the effects of grain size, recrystallization, creep, and texture on overall rock strength within the Earth's mantle during the Genesis Flood. Our study uses experimental rheological data obtained from the mineralogical literature for olivine, which is the most predominant mantle mineral. We apply an Internal State Variable (ISV) constitutive model within the framework of the TERRA finite element code to capture the subscale structures and their associated dynamics, strength, and viscosity effects during the Flood episode. Our numerical investigations, in both 2D and 3D, that include the improved deformation model reveal even more clearly that the potential for mantle instability enabled an episode of atastrophic plate tectonics to occur. This mantle instability arises from the extreme weakening behavior resulting from the relationship between microstructural features (herein texture, recrystallization, and grain size) and thermomechanical properties (e.g., stress and viscosity) under the conditions of temperature, pressure, and strain rate within the mantle during the Genesis Flood. It is our conviction that such an episode played a major role in the global Flood described in Genesis 7-8.

A Flood origin for the geologic column

T.L. Clarey, D.J. Werner

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: The geologic column has been under the scrutiny of numerous creationists for many decades. Critics have claimed the column is intimately tied to the evolutionary worldview and deep time, and cannot be trusted or used by creation scientists. Other creation scientists have argued that the geologic column, although incomplete at most locations, can provide useful correlations of rocks and fossils across the globe. This paper examines the sedimentary rocks across three continents in an attempt to test the validity of the global geologic column. We attempted to assess the data primarily from a lithologic viewpoint, and as independent of the fossil data as possible. To accomplish this, we constructed a new data set of over 1500 local, stratigraphic columns across three continents, recording the detailed lithologic information and Sloss-type megasequence boundaries at each site. A detailed 3-D lithology model was created for each continent using the local columns. We also constructed maps of the basal lithology for each megasequence. Unique lithologic units, like salt and chert-rich layers were also tracked from column to column. Results show extensive lithologic units (i.e. blanket sandstones) covered portions of every continent and are correlative across vast regions and even continent to continent. The correlation of these stacked basal megasequence units, and other unique lithologies (i.e. salt and chert layers) within the megasequences, confirm the validity of the geologic column on a global scale. The observable pattern in the fossil record further confirms these findings. Indeed, a global Flood could produce globally extensive, stacked lithologic units on an intercontinental scale. Creationists should not be critical of the geologic column, but embrace it as evidence of a global Flood event.

Pre-Flood geography

T.L. Clarey, D.J. Werner

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: Knowledge of pre-Flood geography and the location of the Garden of Eden have eluded Bible-believing scientists and theologians. This study attempts to reconstruct the gross geography of the pre-Flood world by examining the detailed stratigraphy that was deposited during the Flood. Over 1500 stratigraphic columns were constructed across North and South America and Africa, recording the lithology and stratigraphy at each location. Sedimentary layers were examined using Sloss-type megasequences which allowed detailed analysis of the progression of the Flood in six discrete depositional segments. The three earliest megasequences, Sauk, Tippecanoe and Kaskaskia, were the most limited in areal coverage and volume and contain almost exclusively marine fossils, indicating a likely marine realm. The 4th megasequence (Absaroka) shows a dramatic increase in global coverage and volume and includes the first major plant and terrestrial animal fossils. The 5th megasequence (Zuni) appears to be the highest water point of the Flood (Day 150) as it exhibits the maximum global volume of sediment and the maximum areal coverage, compared to all earlier megasequences. The final megasequence (Tejas) exhibits fossils indicative of the highest upland areas of the pre-Flood world. Its rocks document a major shift in direction reflective of the receding water phase of the Flood. Results include the first, data-based, pre-Flood geography map for half of the world. By comparing the individual megasequences to the fossil record, patterns emerge that fit the concept of ecological zonation. The paper concludes with a new ecological zonation-megasequence model for Flood strata and the fossil record.

Global deposits of in situ, upper Cambrian microbialites - Implications for a scientific model of origins

K.P. Coulson

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: The existence of in situ microbialites of biological origin located in upper Cambrian rocks in western Utah presents some problems for creationists as they seek to define the boundary that separates pre-Flood deposits from those that were deposited during the Flood event itself. These microbialites are extensive in nature, covering an area of at least 2600 km2, and are stacked one atop the other in multiple beds that span a thickness of at least 300 m, but could be as thick as several km (intercalated between wackestone wedges). Other microbialites found throughout similar upper Cambrian rocks in Nevada and California are most likely representative of those in western Utah. Upper Cambrian microbialite beds have also been described from other areas in North America that circumscribe what appears to be the ancient coast of the North American craton associated with Laurentia. A total of 15 different locations span the southern United States, from New York to the region around Utah, California and Nevada, and then continue the trail northward through Idaho, Alberta and into the Northwest Territories of Canada. If these microbialites indeed are in situ, then they represent vast environments that require time frames greater than the one-year period of Noah's Flood.

Young earth relativistic cosmology

P.W. Dennis

Discipline: Astronomy

Abstract: We present a young earth creationist (YEC) model of creation that is consistent with distant light from distant objects in the cosmos. We discuss the reality of time from theological/philosophical foundations. This results in the rejection of the idealist viewpoint of relativity and the recognition of the reality of the flow of time and the existence of a single cosmological "now." We begin the construction of the YEC cosmology with an examination of the "chronological enigmas" of the inhomogeneous solutions of the Einstein field equations (EFE) of General Relativity (GR). For this analysis we construct an inhomogeneous model by way of the topological method of constructing solutions of the EFE. The topological method uses the local (tensorial) feature of solutions of the EFE that imply that if (M, g) is a solution then removing any closed subset X of M is also a solution on the manifold with MA = M - X and the restriction gA = g|MA. Also, if (MA, gA) and (MB, gB) are solutions of the EFE in disjoint regions then the "stitching" together of (MA, gA) and (MB, gB) with continuous boundary conditions is also a solution. From this we show conceptually how an approximate "crude" model with a young earth neighborhood and an older remote universe can be constructed. This approximate "crude" model suffers from having abrupt boundaries. This model is an example of a spherically symmetric inhomogeneous spacetime. We discuss the class of exact spherically symmetric inhomogeneous universes represented by the Lemaître-Tolman (L-T) class of exact solutions of the EFE. A more realistic model refines this technique by excising a past subset with an asymptotically null spacelike surface from the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology. We build the model from the closed FLRW solution by selecting a spacelike hyperboloidal surface as the initial surface at the beginning of the first day of creation. This surface induces, by way of embedding into FLRW space-time, an isotropic but radially inhomogeneous matter density consistent with the full FLRW space-time. The resulting space-time is a subset of the usual FLRW space-time and thus preserves the FLRW causal structure and the observational predictions such as the Hubble law. We show that the initial spacelike surface evolves in a consistent manner and that light from the distant "ancient" galaxies arrive at the earth within the creation week and thereafter. All properties of light arriving from distant galaxies retain the same features as those of the FLRW space-time. This follows from the fact that the solution presented is an open subset of the FLRW space-time so that all differential properties and analysis that applies to FLRW also applies to our solution. Qualitatively these models solve the distant star light problem and from a theological point of view, in which God advances the (cosmic) time of the spacelike hypersurfaces at a non-uniform rate during the miraculous creation week, solve the distant light problem. We conclude by briefly discussing possible objections of some of our key assumptions and showing that a relativist cannot consistently object to our assumptions based on the merely operationalist point of view that an absolute spacelike "now" cannot be empirically determined.

Precambrian Biblical Model

H. Dickens

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: This paper provides a geological history model for a whole continent that aims to be consistent with both mapped geology and the Biblical record. A high-level overview of North America's Precambrian province geology is described and then history interpreted within a Young Earth biblical model.
Correlation of Precambrian geological history with God's sequence of acts chronicled in the Bible was based on interpreting key subjects such as the relative order of radiometric "ages", the role of water and regional heating Events.
Interpretation of radiometric date clusters, and thus thermal-tectonic Events was used to infer correlation with the Biblical record. It is proposed that God instigated heating Events and with the heat of each Event, radiometric "ages" were systematically reset to lower values. These "ages" provide information on the history of crystallization and cooling from high temperatures. On the basis of date clusters, the principal thermal-tectonic Events in North America are successively:
1. Kenoran (late Archean)- associated with simultaneous cooling and convective heat dissipation of earlier hotter crust within individual Archean provinces, and the beginning of stable cratons.
2. Hudsonian (late Paleoproterozoic) - associated with internal deformation and remetamorphism of Archean provinces, as well as metasomatism.
3. Grenvillian (late Mesoproterozoic) - associated with huge thickening of continental crust and high mountain building.
4. Pan-African (late Neoproterozoic) - associated with massive rifting on the Cordilleran and Appalachian margins, as well as immense continental erosion and enormous water flows.
Biblical descriptions of Day One (initial global ocean and hovering over waters), Day Two (waters above and below), Day Three (dry land appears) and the early Noahic Flood (fountains bursting forth and rain) may respectively be essentially correlated with North America's Archean, Paleoproterozoic, Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic geology (including Kenoran, Hudsonian, Grenvillian and Pan-African thermal-tectonic Events) respectively. Some specific locations of pre-Flood geography have been inferred in relation to today's Precambrian areas.

Dinosauria baraminology

N.A. Doran, N. Hartman, A. Sanderson

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: The Dinosauria pose both interesting and challenging questions. One question is whether new dinosaur discoveries are closing morphospatial gaps between dinosaurian groups, revealing continuous morphological fossil series, such as between coelurosaurians and avialans. These questions underscore the importance of systematics for resolving correct group memberships, including tools for visualizing morphospatial relationships. Baraminic distance correlation (BDC), three-dimensional multidimensional scaling (MDS), and a new method to baraminic studies - principal component analysis (PCA) - were applied to 18 character matrices from 2004. The data included saurischian and ornithischian dinosaur groups including (1) basal Saurischia, (2) Ceratosauria (including Coelophysidae), (3) basal Tetanurae (both maniraptoriform and non-maniraptoriform), (4) Tyrannosauroidea, (5) Prosauropoda, (6) Sauropoda, and Maniraptoriformes (7) Ornithomimosauria, Dromaeosauridae, and Troodontidae (single matrix, including a few Alvarezsauridae), (8) Therizinosauroidea, and (9) Oviraptorosauria. The ornithischians included (10) basal Thyreophora, (11) Stegosauria, (12) Ankylosauria, (13) basal Ornithopoda, (14) basal Iguanodontia, (15) Hadrosauridae, (16) Pachycephalosauria, (17) Ceratopsia, and (18) Ceratopsidae. From the 2004 data we report seven tentative holobaramins, five apobaramins, and five groups with unclear associations. PCA identified several clear morphospatial divisions within taxonomic groups not identified by BDC. For comparison 19 newer datasets (from 2009 to 2018) were analyzed using PCA alone. The results revealed a substantially clearer picture since only 2004. Dinosaur groups included morphospatial clusters and series of taxa. Holobaramins were revealed mainly as closely-spaced morphospatial series of taxa. Some series were additionally stratomorphic. Assuming holobaramin are discontinuity-bounded morphospatial series of taxa, we estimate 36 potential holobaramin within the newer data. PCA revealed that bird-dinosaur morphospatial relationships vary by dataset. Maniraptorans likely contain two branching morphoseries, connected at the base by dromaeosaurs and avialans. The morphoseries are functional/ecological, rather than evolutionary. Multivariate analysis offers the potential to improve our understanding of baramins, discontinuity, and provide a new perspective on questions in creation systematics such as bird-dinosaur relationships.

Creation Astronomy II

D. Faulkner

Discipline: Astronomy

Abstract: t has been nearly twenty years since the previous review of the state of creation astronomy. Since then, much progress has occurred in developing a creation model of astronomy, and some of the recommendations of that earlier review have been carried out. Both the number of papers on astronomical topics published in the creation literature and their depth of coverage have increased tremendously. There has been less concern with criticism of evolutionary ideas as creationists have begun to develop their own models of astronomy. While emphasis on indicators of recent origin is not as great as it used to be, that continues to be a topic of discussion. The number of proposed solutions to the light travel time problem has doubled. New cosmologies have appeared. We have debated the interpretation of craters within the framework of six-day recent creation. The discovery of many extrasolar planets has shed light both on the difficulty of the naturalistic origin of planetary systems and the uniqueness of earth. Creationists are divided on the existence of dark matter and the cause of cosmological redshifts. I offer recommendations for future study.

Bacteriophages as beneficial regulators

J.W. Francis, M. Ingle, T.C. Wood

Discipline: Biology

Abstract: Much of the research on viruses has concentrated on their disease causing ability. The creation model biomatrix theory predicts that viruses play a beneficial role in cells and organisms. In this report we present a new theory which proposes that mammalian phages (bacteriophages), the most abundant organism associated with mammals, guard and regulate growth of the mammalian microbiome. We base this theory on nearly a century of published evidence that demonstrates that phage can insert into the bacterial genome and cover the surface of bacteria. We propose that this "cloaking" of the bacterial cell surface is an elegant mechanism whereby the normal flora bacteria are protected from immune detection and pathogenic bacteria can be directly lysed by the same phage. Additionally, both phage genome integration and cloaking can be used to prevent normal flora bacteria from conversion to a pathogenic state. Further support for the phage cloaking aspect of our theory has been demonstrated in recent studies which show that phage proteins bind specifically to microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), which are known to be the major ligands that activate the mammalian immune system. Although these phenomena have been documented separately over decades, we postulate for the first time that these functions work together to promote the integrity of the mammalian microbiome.

Devonian and Carboniferous tetrapodomorphs

P.A. Garner, J. Asher

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: According to evolutionary theory, the origin of tetrapods (or limbed vertebrates) from a fish-like ancestor during the Devonian Period was one of the major events in the history of life. Devonian sediments have yielded several families of tetrapod-like fishes, including the elpistostegids which range from the Givetian to Frasnian of the Middle Devonian and are regarded as close to the evolutionary ancestry of tetrapods. Two of the best-known "early" tetrapods are Ichthyostega and Acanthostega, first described from fossil material discovered in the Famennian (uppermost Upper Devonian) sediments of East Greenland. These taxa (and others subsequently described) display mosaic combinations of fish-like and tetrapod-like characters, along with some unique traits (such as polydactyly) not found in more "derived" tetrapods. Creationists have claimed that these organisms are not evolutionary intermediates, but were rather the inhabitants of aquatic environments associated with a pre-Flood floating forest biome, with morphologically intermediate traits that equipped them for life in an environment that was itself intermediate between the sea and the land. This paper evaluates the baraminic status of a range of Devonian and Carboniferous fishes and tetrapods using the techniques of statistical baraminology. Baraminic distance correlation (BDC) and three-dimensional multidimensional scaling (MDS) are applied to six previously published character-taxon matrices. The results reveal little evidence of continuity, and significant evidence of discontinuity, between the elpistostegids and tetrapods such as Ichthyostega and Acanthostega, consistent with the creationist claim of separate ancestry. However, further work will be required to elucidate the baraminic relationships within these presumably apobaraminic groups.

Post-Flood Ice Age precipitation

S.M. Gollmer

Discipline: Physics

Abstract: Introduced in the Genesis Flood by Whitcomb and Morris (1961) and fleshed out by Oard (1979) a model for an ice age in the wake of the Genesis flood was used to explain the evidence of glaciation in Canada and the United States without resorting to eons of time. It was proposed that this rapid ice age was the consequence of post flood warm oceans, barren land and volcanic aerosols. The impact of warm oceans was simulated by Vardiman (1998) and Gollmer (2013) using climate models. Although warm oceans increase precipitation in the Arctic, global surface temperatures become unbearably hot unless volcanic aerosols equivalent to the eruption of Toba are used. In addition, with ocean temperatures of 30 degrees C the formation of snow and ice are impossible because air and land temperatures in the Arctic remain above freezing.

Using dynamic oceans with a uniform initial temperature of 24 degrees C, climate simulations are performed to explore the impact of aerosol distributions on the position of the jet stream and storm tracks. In previous simulations, precipitation in the Arctic is primarily over the ocean rather than land, thus limiting how quickly ice sheets are able to grow. Although the simulations reported here are still too warm for the accumulation of snow, it is clear that the thermal circulation coming off a cold continent must be offset by other factors in order for sufficient precipitation to fall inland.

Man, machine and creation science

S.M. Gollmer

Discipline: Philosophy

Abstract: Historically, physics was the most quantitative of the sciences. Geologists and biologists built their models based on observation, categorization and generalization. This distinction between qualitative and quantitative sciences prompted the quote attributed to Ernest Rutherford that "All science is either physics or stamp collecting." In the intervening 80 years all sciences have exploded in the use of quantitative measures to find patterns and trends in data. A review of a half-century of creationist literature shows that this transition has not been lost to the creationist community.
As this trend continues to accelerate, two areas of caution need to be taken seriously: 1) the use of properly validated techniques and 2) evaluating the role of assumptions in the development of models. In addition, advancements in machine learning tend to blur the lines between human insight and computational power. With a proper understanding of the nature of man, creation scientists are well suited to evaluate the unique role human investigators play in the choice, guidance and interpretation of that which is processed by the machine.

How organisms continuously track environmental changes

R.J. Guliuzza, P.B. Gaskil

Discipline: Biology

Abstract: We offer a new framework for understanding biological adaptability based on interpreting the findings of 342 journal articles and 67 online reports related to adaptation, bioengineering, and design in view of the assumption that biological functions are most accurately explained by engineering principles. We hypothesize that organisms actively and continuously track environmental variables and respond by self-adjusting to changing environments "utilizing the engineering principles constraining how human-designed objects self-adjust to changes" which results in adaptation. We termed this hypothesis Continuous Environmental Tracking (CET). CET is an engineering-based, organism-focused characterization of adaptation. CET expects to find that organisms adapt via systems with elements analogous to those within human-engineered tracking systems, namely: input sensors, internal logic mechanisms to select suitable responses, and actuators to execute responses. We derived the hypothesis by reinterpreting findings and formalizing biological adaptability within a framework of engineering design, considering: (1) objectives, (2) constraints, (3) variables, and (4) the biological systems related to the previous three. The literature does identify internal mechanisms with elements analogous to engineered systems using sensors coupled to complex logic mechanisms producing highly "targeted" self-adjustments suitable to changes. Adaptive mechanisms were characterized as regulated, rapid, repeatable, and sometimes, reversible. Adaptation happened largely through regulated gene expression and not gene inheritance, per se. These observations, consistent with CET, contrast starkly with the evolutionary framework's randomness of tiny, accidental "hit-and-miss" phenotypes fractioned out to lucky survivors of deadly challenges. Evolutionists now divide over their framework's need of modification, and a trend among some seeks to infuse more engineering into biology. This disarray affords a rare, transient opportunity for engineering advocates to frame the issue. CET may fundamentally change how we perceive organisms; from passive modeling clay shaped over time by the vicissitudes of nature, to active, problem-solving creatures that continuously track environmental changes to better fit existing niches or fill new ones.

The Ipuwer Papyrus and the Exodus

A. Habermehl

Discipline: Archeology

Abstract: Controversy surrounds the Ipuwer Papyrus, an Egyptian manuscript residing in the Dutch National Museum of Antiquities in Leiden, Netherlands. On the one side are those who claim that this manuscript describes chaotic conditions in Egypt at the time of the biblical Exodus. On the other side are those who deny this on the basis of disbelief that the Exodus ever took place, or who claim that the date of the events described in the manuscript are wrong for the Exodus. In this paper we show that this ancient document most likely describes Exodus conditions; and that the Ipuwer Papyrus therefore offers strong extra-biblical evidence for a historical Exodus. With respect to dating the events in this papyrus, it needs to be understood that the secular historical timeline diverges from the biblical timeline, and furthermore, that the Old Kingdom and the Middle Kingdom of Egypt ended at the same time (contrary to the standard history). This puts the manuscript's original date (as determined by scholars) exactly where it should be. The question of divergence of the secular and biblical timelines is a matter of enormous importance for biblical apologetics. Often secular scholars declare that biblical events like the Exodus cannot have taken place because there are no evidences of these at the time in history where the Bible places them. The Ipuwer papyrus therefore supports a divergence of several hundred years between the biblical and secular timelines at the time of the Exodus.

Gobekli Tepe

A. Habermehl

Discipline: Archeology

Abstract: Gobekli Tepe is a prehistoric archaeological site in SE Turkey that has captured the attention of the world by how advanced it is for its age, an astounding 12,000 years old on the conventional timeline. This has required conventional scholars to readjust their thinking about the capabilities of ancient people because, according to their worldview, humans should not have been able to produce carved stone monuments like these that far back in time. Creationists do not find this difficult to accept because they believe that early man was a capable being, as created by God. In addition, because the creationist timeline is far shorter than the conventional one, Gobekli Tepe was not built as long ago as conventional scholars believe. In this paper we discuss the conventional versus biblical timelines and show the enormous telescoping of the conventional timeline in historical times that is necessary to correlate it to the two slightly variant biblical timelines (Masoretic and Septuagint). Using the end of the Neanderthals, the end of the Pleistocene, the Nile Delta formation, and Abraham's visit to Egypt, it is proposed here that Gobekli Tepe was most likely founded somewhat more than one hundred years before Abraham's visit to Egypt (Masoretic timeline) or, alternatively, around two hundred and fifty years before Abraham's visit to Egypt (Septuagint timeline). It is postulated that geological events at the end of the Ice Age may have caused the builders of Gobekli Tepe to first migrate to the site, and then later abandon it.

Accelerated cooling

D.R. Humphreys

Discipline: Physics

Abstract: In a technical paper (Humphreys, 2014), I presented Biblical and scientific evidence that (a) space is a physical material that we do not perceive, (b) this fabric of space, and objects within it, are thin in a 4th spatial direction we do not ordinarily perceive, and (c) the fabric is surrounded by a hyperspace of four spatial dimensions. End note 27 of the paper explained that light emitted by objects within the fabric ordinarily would be constrained to travel entirely within the fabric. The end note also proposed that under certain extraordinary conditions the Bible calls the opening of the heavens, some of the emitted light could leak directly into hyperspace. Here I point out that such leakage would include other types of electromagnetic radiation, particularly black-body (thermal) radiation. This would allow the interiors of hot objects to cool rapidly, proportionally to the 4th power of their absolute temperature, according to the Stefan-Boltzmann law. Cooler objects would lose their heat much less rapidly. This mechanism appears to be a good way to get rid of the excess heat generated by accelerated nuclear decay during several episodes in the Earth's history, and it explains the evidence that this accelerated cooling did occur (Humphreys, 2005). It also would be a good way to get rid of other heat generated in creationist geologic models, such as heat in batholiths and new ocean floors. Last, I will briefly discuss the possibility that the opening of the heavens also caused accelerated nuclear decay.

The fate of arsenic in Noah's Flood

A.R. Hutchison, C.F. Bortel

Discipline: Chemistry

Abstract: One potential consequence of Noah's Flood would be the mobilization of toxic elements such as arsenic (As), a group 15 metalloid with a significant solubility and redox chemistry in water and a high toxicity to human beings. This paper discusses the likely chemistry of arsenic during the Flood. The Flood would have released arsenic through hydrothermal activity, volcanic eruptions, and weathering of crustal rock. Arsenic in hydrothermal fluid would likely be rapidly precipitated by sulfides. Likewise, much of the arsenic in volcanoes would actually be deposited sub-surface as sulfides. In the presence of oxygen-rich waters, these sulfide minerals can undergo oxidative dissolution, releasing the arsenic back into the water to join that liberated by the weathering of the surface. Iron oxyhydroxides would form in such an environment, however, and these will sorb and remove arsenic from the water once again. In waters rich in organic-carbon, reducing conditions can return periodically. This would lead to reductive dissolution to liberate the arsenic from the iron oxyhydroxides. However, these conditions can also reduce sulfates to sulfides and thus reprecipitate the arsenic sulfide minerals. Furthermore, the extremely rapid formation of sedimentary rock during the Flood would likely bury both the original sulfide minerals and the arsenic-sorbed iron oxyhydroxides before they could be significantly dissolved. The modern distribution of arsenic gives evidence of this; the element is often concentrated in large sedimentary basins adjacent to orogenic belts. It appears that arsenic sulfides (formed during the Flood) were in some cases subject to uplift during orogenesis associated with the Flood and underwent oxidation, resulting in the arsenic being sorbed to iron minerals and clays. These eroded into the foreland basins and were buried before the arsenic could leach into local waters to a major degree. In modern times, however, reductive dissolutions of these deposits has resulted in arsenic poisoning. While arsenic does not threaten the Flood model (rather the Flood explains the modern distribution of arsenic), modern arsenic contamination is an ongoing result of the judgement of the Flood.

Young universe cosmology

B.M. Johnson

Discipline: Astronomy

Abstract: Distant starlight is one of the most challenging natural phenomena to reconcile with a recent creation. Most creationist cosmologies attempt to address this apparent contradiction between God's two books by appealing to the flexibility associated with our definition of time (Hartnett 2007; Humphreys 2008; Lisle 2010). In their current formulation, these cosmologies allow for long cosmological times periods while preserving short time periods on earth (they can thus be viewed as young earth but old universe cosmologies). Assuming that astronomical distance measurements are accurate, a consistent young universe cosmology would appear to require either some form of mature creation (i.e., local generation of starlight that is only apparently distant) or a variation in the speed of light. There is a vast literature on a variable speed of light (both creationist and non-creationist), often accompanied by a fair bit of controversy and misunderstanding. Creationist explorations have relied on suspect extrapolations of uncertain historical measurements to argue for a speed of light that has decreased since the time of Creation (Setterfield 1987). However, a speed of light that varies with gravity stands on much firmer theoretical footing. In particular, there is a direct mathematical analogy between weak-field gravity and a varying speed of light (Barceló et al. 2011). This paper will explore some of the implications associated with assuming that this analogy represents an underlying physical reality. One implication of this picture is that cosmological redshifts are due to a spatial variation in the speed of light (Dicke 1957) rather than to the expansion of space, although in principle both physical effects could be operating in concert. If light propagates faster in regions of space where gravity is weak, the extremely low gravitational potential of cosmological voids may be sufficient to put the entire universe in causal contact with the Earth on the time scale of Biblical history. Attributing cosmological redshifts to a spatial variation in the speed of light alone would obviate the need for dark energy, and a model in which the speed of light increases in the outskirts of galaxies has the potential to explain galactic rotation curves without invoking dark matter or modifying Newtonian dynamics. Finally, the model predicts a redshift evolution for the Tolman surface brightness signal (Hubble and Tolman 1935) that differs from that predicted by an expanding universe model, with the current model being more in line with observations. Not only does this hypothesis provide a straightforward solution to the problem of distant starlight, its connection with gravity also points the way towards the development of a robust and predictive young universe cosmological model.

Characterization of petrified and mummified wood from an Eocene deposit in Mississippi

N. Lee, S. Mun, M.F. Horstemeyer, S.J. Horstemeyer, D.J. Lang

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: This study experimentally investigates pieces of wood that include both mummified and petrified portions within the same pieces collected from the Red Hills Lignite Mine in Mississippi, USA. To the authors' knowledge, having petrified and mummified regions within the same piece of wood has not been previously reported. Our study analyzes the chemical compositions, microstructures, and nanohardness that help characterize the local regions of a piece of the lignite mine wood. The chemical analysis revealed that the composition of the mummified regions included carbon, meaning these regions were similar to currently growing wood, and other regions included silicon meaning these regions were petrified... in the same piece of wood! This chemical analysis verified the mummified/petrified wood regions in multiple pieces of wood. Micrographs showed that the mummified regions retained well-preserved wood cell structures, and the petrified regions retained recognizable plant structures. Based on the wood cell structures, we confirmed that the wood originated from a species of conifer. Nano-indentation results showed the nanohardness of the petrified region to be 4.57 ± 3.11 GPa and the mummified region to be 0.71 ± 0.39 GPa. These hardness results also confirm that the petrified regions and mummified regions were clearly different materials as the silicate region is known to be much harder than the carbon regions. With respect to the environmental condition that enabled petrification and mummification within the same pieces of wood, one would expect a rapid freezing in place of the petrified and mummified regions of the wood pieces. This evidence invites a clear criticism of the long age, slow process proffered by evolutionists, and also confirms either a late flood or shortly thereafter post-flood condition that helped shape the sediments in Mississippi.

The CRS eKINDS research initiative

J.K. Lightner, K. Anderson

Discipline: Biology

Abstract: The eKINDS research initiative began in 2016 in an effort to accelerate research on
numerous outstanding questions related the diversification and speciation of plants and animals. The research encompasses three broad topics: a) identification of created kinds, b) identification of mechanisms that drive diversification and speciation within created kinds, and c) detailed analysis of individual created kinds in an attempt to propose a robust natural history that delineates key events as organisms reproduced and filled the earth following the time of the Flood.

As part of the eKINDS project, a new statistical tool is being developed to take advantage of the steadily increasing pools of molecular data. It compares expressed proteins, which typically cluster organisms into discreet groups, suggesting that members of a group may belong to a single kind. This method has been applied to insects and fungi. Additionally, analysis has begun on primates and other vertebrates. There are plans to use it on more taxa as proteomic data accumulates.

The eKINDS project is also investigating the possibility that designed mechanisms exist for the
generation of adaptive alleles. Some work has been done to explore the significance of founding events in post-Flood diversification and speciation. Other mechanisms are slated to be explored as well. Several avian kinds are being investigated in an attempt to piece together key aspects of their natural history. Our hope is that, by God's grace, more researchers will be mobilized to address these critical questions so we, as believers, can make substantial contributions to science and demonstrate the robustness of the biblical creation model.

Endogenous Retroviruses

Y. Liu, T.D. Nguyen

Discipline: Biology

Abstract: Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are still regarded as foreign invaders by most biologists. Because of structural and positional homology of ERVs in human and ape genomes, they have been considered molecular evidences of common ancestry. Using a breast cancer cell line, we analyzed the regulatory features of a group of human endogenous retroviruses (HERV-K), and found that they contain multiple sequence motifs subjecting them to regulation by sex hormones, a stem cell-specific transcription factor (OCT4), and DNA methylation. Mutation of the OCT4 motif abrogates their response to sex hormones, while methylation of a progesterone-response element enhances receptorbinding. We also found that solo LTRs of HERVK enable hormonal regulation of downstream cellular genes. The findings support the hypothesis that ERVs are integral parts of eukaryotic genomes and are designed to regulate interspersed genes, especially in reproduction and development.

Lessons from the bombardier beetle

A.C. McIntosh, J.Lawrence

Discipline: Engineering

Abstract: The innocuous looking bombardier beetle is one of the most remarkable creatures in the insect world. This tiny insect (1-1.5 cms long) is able to fight off any spider, frog, ant or bird that comes too close, by blasting the attacker with a powerful jet of hot, toxic fluid. Furthermore, the beetle can aim its weapon in any direction (even over its head) with pinpoint accuracy, and can reach distances of up to 20 cm with its spray. The bombardier beetle is rare in Europe but common in Africa, Asia and the warmer parts of the Americas, and in order to resist predators, forms a noxious spray by reacting small amounts of hydroquinone with hydrogen peroxide in a pair of combustion chambers in its abdomen, and in the presence of the catalysts catalase and peroxidase.

The beetle demonstrates irreducible complexity in the following systems:

- the sensory mechanism which gives awareness of the approach of a predator
- the valve system that involves both inlet and exhaust valves working synchronously,
- the chemical production of reactants hydrogen peroxide and hydroquinone
- the use of catalytic chemistry to eject a controlled explosive mixture
- the moveable, flexible exhaust turret to enable ejection in any direction,

These and others are systems which only work when each of the component parts are operating in harmony with others in a coordinated mechanism. For chemical systems the same point applies in principle. The overall chemical system will only operate correctly if each component chemical is in place in a prepared pathway.

This paper reviews the research of a number of authors (including Professor McIntosh) into the workings of the bombardier beetle spray system. Not only is this is a classic example of biomimetics (the study of design in nature and copying these designs and using them in engineering), but also tacitly underlines the necessity of design in the original beetle itself. The discovery that the McIntosh team made of sophisticated mechanisms in the beetle's structure and chemistry demonstrates the irreducible complexity in the design of the beetle.

Feathered dinosaurs reconsidered

M. McLain , M. Petrone, M. Speights

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: Birds could not have evolved from land animal ancestors because Genesis clearly states that birds and land animals were created on separate days. As a result, young-earth creationists have consistently opposed the theory that birds evolved from dinosaurs. Nevertheless, numerous fossils of dinosaurs with feathers, including some very bird-like dinosaurs, have been found in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. We determined to understand what these fossils mean in a creationist context through a survey of their fossil record and statistical baraminological analyses. While the survey demonstrates that feathered dinosaur fossils do, in fact, exist, the baraminological analyses suggest that there are probably at least seven different created kinds of non-avialan dinosaurs. The existence of multiple created kinds of non-avialan dinosaurs, non-avian avialans, and avians without an enormous morphological gulf between these groups, although historically unexpected in creationism, is argued through this study to be an accurate picture for their designed organization. Because of these results, creationists need to rethink the way they understand the organization of life, especially as it relates to tetrapods in order to better represent the full spectrum of God's created variety.

Creationist Commentary on and Analysis of Tree-Ring Data: A Review

R.W. Sanders

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: This paper 1) reviews the creationist literature concerning the use of tree growth rings in determining the ages of long-lived trees, developing post-Pleistocene chronologies, calibrating radiocarbon dates, and estimating past climates, and 2) suggests positive research directions using these data to develop creationist models of biblical earth history. Only a single author attempted to use tree-ring data to model pre-Flood climate zonation. However, most commentaries and studies focused on dendrochronology and using it to calibrate radiocarbon dates. Of these, most authors either 1) accepted conventional use of rings as annual indicators but rejected cross-matching with dead logs to produce master tree-ring chronologies extending to a date that may predate the Flood, or 2) proposed multiple rings per year reducing the dates to post-date the Flood, or 3) some combination of 1 and 2, or 4) accepted annual rings and cross-matched master chronologies but extended the date of the Flood prior to those chronologies via biblically acceptable gaps. All authors concerned with radiocarbon dating accepted it as reproducible but disagreed concerning the calibration provided by master chronologies, especially that of the bristlecone pine. The main issues raised by those objecting to calibration is that master chronologies are unreliable and the radiocarbon production rate has varied widely from the Flood until now. This paper calls for research into six areas (biblical studies, physiology of tree growth, C-14 flux through time, possible C-14 contamination, geologic and climatic context of Flood/post-Flood, and biogeographic history of dated trees) to attempt to resolve some of these disagreements and unknowns in order to build a consensus dendrochronology calibration model to convert radiocarbon dates into real time. This paper also calls for research to build creationist models of past environments, but this largely depends on first resolving the dendrochronology issues.

Historical Survey of the Floating Mat Model for the Origin of Carboniferous Coal Beds

R.W. Sanders, S.A. Austin

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: A review of the history of the debate on origin of Carboniferous coal shows the priority that autochthonists have placed on paleobotanical data and interpretation. New data and methodology are offered here for interpreting the paleobotany and paleoecology of dominant Carboniferous coal plants: tree lycopsids and the tree-fern Psaronius. Lycopsid and tree-fern anatomies are characterized by air-filled chambers for buoyancy with rooting structures that are not suited for growth into and through terrestrial soil. Lycopsid development included boat-like dispersing spores, establishment of abundant buoyant, photosynthetic, branching and radiating rhizomorphs prior to upright stem growth, and prolonged life of the unbranched trunk prior to abrupt terminating growth of reproductive branches. The tree fern Psaronius is now understood better than previously to have had a much thicker, more flaring, and further spreading outer root mantle that formed a buoyant raft. Its increasingly heavy leaf crown was counterbalanced by forcing the basally rotting cane-like trunk and attached inner portion of the root mantle continually deeper underwater. Lycopsids and tree-ferns formed living floating mats capable of supporting the trunks. Paleobotany of coal plants should now be best understood as supporting a floating raft that deposited the detritus that now forms Carboniferous coal beds.

Designed genetic diversity in Adam and Eve

J.C. Sanford, W. Brewer, R.W. Carter, J. Baumgardner

Discipline: Biology

Abstract: Theistic evolutionists present multiple genetic arguments against a literal Adam and Eve. One key argument asserts it would be impossible for a single human couple to give rise to the genetic diversity seen in the modern human population. This implicitly assumes Adam and Eve would have been created without internal genetic diversity. If this were true, all observed variations would have to arise recently via random mutations. This would require incredibly high mutation rates, logically leading to rapid extinction.
Yet, Adam and Eve could have been created massively heterozygous. We have argued for over a decade that they could have been created with "designed diversity". We have previously shown that a vast amount of genetic variation could have been pre-programmed into their genomes. This could logically provide the genetic basis for: 1) our human gifts and talents; 2) the many forms of human beauty; and 3) the various ways people have rapidly adapted to new habitats.
It is also claimed that the currently observed human allele frequency patterns could not arise from a single couple. The logic here is that, since there were only four sets of chromosomes in Eden, all variants would have had an initial frequency of either 25%, 50%, or 75%. Today, most allelic variants have frequencies in the range of 0-10%. Therefore, it is claimed that observed human diversity disproves a literal Adam and Eve.
In this paper we have critically examined these arguments. Our analyses highlight several genetic mechanisms that can help reconcile a literal Adam and Eve with the human allele frequency distributions seen today. We use numerical simulation to show that two people, if they contain designed alleles, can in fact give rise to allele frequency distributions of the very same type as are now seen in modern man.
We cannot know how God created Adam and Eve, nor exactly how Adam and Eve gave rise to the current human population. However, the genetic argument that there is no way that a literal Adam and Eve could have given rise to the observed human allele frequencies is clearly over-reaching and appears to be theologically reckless. There is no compelling reason to reject Adam and Eve based on modern allele frequencies.

Finite element analysis of a near impact event

D. Seely, A.L. Bowman, N. Cho, M.F. Horstemeyer

Discipline: Astronomy

Abstract: Finite element simulations of near impacts of terrestrial bodies are presented to investigate possible deformation behavior induced by a massive body during the creation week and/or Genesis Flood. Using the laws of universal gravitation, a gravitationally loaded objected is subjected to the "pull" of a near passing fly-by object, and the resulting surface deformations are studied. An Internal State Variable (ISV) plasticity model for silicate rocks (Sherburn et al., 2011) is used to model the deformation behavior and to capture the history effects involved during the complex surface loading/unloading found in a near impact event. The model is used to simulate the earth and a "fly-by" object interaction and is able to accurately reproduce the internal pressure profiles of the earth and fly-by object. In this context, the fly-by object can be the original Moon, a meteor, or another type of large object that has moved through space to interact with the Earth. Due to the wide range of features that can drive surface deformations during a near impact event, a Design Of Experiments (DOE) methodology was used to independently investigate the influences of five parameters (stationary body size, core material, core/mantle thickness ratio, passing object mass, and passing object distance) concerning surface deformation. The results indicate that the core material and core/mantle ratio are the most dominant influence parameters on surface deformation. Examination of the ISV parameters of the mantle during deformation shows a complex relationship between the hardening and recovery terms of the model and the resulting plastic strain and surface deformation induced from the near pass event. Surface rise from the nearpassage of a Moon sized object could be as high as 800 m, in turn causing large tsunamis and possibly causing the Earth's crust to crack. For this first of its kind study, the conclusions provide understanding of the possible ranges of deformations observed from a near pass event and provides insights into possible catastrophic deformation mechanisms relevant to the young Earth paradigm.

The case for the Septuagint's chronology in Genesis 5 and 11.

H.B. Smith, Jr.

Discipline: Bible

Abstract: Many biblical scholars who interpret the genealogies of Genesis 5 and 11 as yielding a continuous chronology from Adam to Abraham claim the Hebrew Masoretic Text (MT) preserves the original begetting ages for the patriarchs. The MT's total for this period is 2008 years. The Samaritan Pentateuch (SP) presents markedly different chronological data for each epoch, for a grand total of 2249 years. Calculations derived from the primary manuscripts (MSS) of the Greek Septuagint (LXX) yield a chronology of 3394 years for this period, 1386 years greater than the MT. The MT is classically represented by the Ussher chronology, which places creation at 4004 BC and the Flood at 2348 BC. Figures from the LXX place creation at ca. 5554 BC and the Flood at ca. 3298 BC (Table 1; Appendix, n. 1). This paper proposes that the LXX preserves (most of) the original numbers in Genesis 5 and 11. Most of the MT's chronology in Genesis 5 and 11 does not represent the original text, and is the result of a deliberate and systematic post-AD 70 corruption. Corroborating external witnesses, internal and external evidence, text critical and LXX studies, and historical testimonies will be presented, along with arguments rebutting LXX inflation hypotheses. Explanations for important, accidental scribal errors will be discussed, and a text critical reconstruction of Genesis 5 and 11 will be proposed.

Radiohalos as an exploration pathfinder

A.A. Snelling

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: It has been proposed that Po radiohalos were formed from Po derived by 238U decay in the radiocenters of nearby 238U radiohalos which was transported by hydrothermal fluids released from granite plutons as they cooled. Thus, since the same hydrothermal fluids have concentrated metals into economic ore veins in some granites, it has also been proposed Po radiohalos could potentially be used as an exploration pathfinder tool for discovering new ore veins associated with granites. This study in the New England Batholith, eastern Australia, found that Mole Granite samples proximal to known hydrothermal ore veins contained extremely high numbers of Po radiohalos, in contrast to a distant sample that contained almost 90% fewer Po radiohalos. However, in the Hillgrove Granite which also hosts hydrothermal ore veins, all samples contained moderate-high numbers of Po radiohalos similar to those in barren granite plutons elsewhere in the batholith. This is because the Hillgrove ore veins were not produced from the hydrothermal fluids expelled from that cooling pluton, but were precipitated from hydrothermal fluids as distant granitoid plutons cooled in a later magmatic event. Thus, the extremely high numbers of Po radiohalos in Mole Granite samples proximal to known ore veins successfully indicated their proximity to those ore veins. Therefore, Po radiohalos proved to be a reliable pathfinder for the hydrothermal ore veins. This strategy applied to the Stanthorpe Granite found two out of six samples with high to very high numbers Po radiohalos, potentially pinpointing areas for follow-up exploration for possible hydrothermal ore veins. Further detailed sampling work is recommended to develop this exploration tool. Nevertheless, since the same hydrothermal fluid flows responsible for the Po radiohalos were responsible for forming the ore veins, then the ore veins must have formed in the same very rapid timescale, within weeks, a timescale fully compatible with the biblical chronology of earth history.

Flood/post-Flood boundary

A.A. Snelling

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: Erosion at the end of and after the Flood exposed the tops of primary ore deposits to subsequent weathering and the formation of supergene minerals. The 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He radioisotope methods applied to these supergene minerals provide the dates for when these minerals formed. But given the documented problems with the radioisotope methods, they can only provide at best relative dates. When the Flood waters retreated, the ground surface was dry, but extra time was needed to allow the water table to drop, soil to form and plants to grow before Noah stepped off the Ark, which marked the end of the Flood event. The weathering front then progressed downwards during the early post-Flood decades for supergene minerals to start forming. Residual post-Flood catastrophism may have involved mountains still rising and ore deposits still forming, such as the porphyry copper deposits associated with granite intrusions as the Andes continued to rise. Erosion exposed those later-formed ore deposits to subsequent weathering to produce supergene minerals well into the early post-Flood era. Thus, the relative ages of the supergene iron oxides, and potassium-bearing sulfates and manganese oxides produced span the whole Cenozoic. It is proposed that relative dates for the first formation of supergene minerals can possibly be used as a criterion for determining the placement of the Flood/post-Flood boundary at the K-Pg boundary with a relative age of 66 Ma. The few slightly earlier relative ages likely resulted from weathering that commenced before the Flood event ended, though deep weathering would have required decades. The spread of relative ages through the Cenozoic thus represents the progressive formation of supergene minerals as primary ore deposits emplaced during, and maybe after, the Flood were subsequently exposed to weathering by residual catastrophism. Continuing investigation of this criterion for placement of the Flood/post-Flood boundary seems warranted.

Origin of our solar system with planet migration

W.R. Spencer

Discipline: Astronomy

Abstract: Two new models to explain the origin and history of our solar system are reviewed from a creation perspective, the Grand Tack model and the Nice model. These new theories propose that the four outer planets formed closer to the Sun, as well as closer together, than today. Then their orbits underwent periods of migration. Theories developed in the research on extrasolar planet systems are today being applied to our own solar system. The new migration models are finding much support from the planetary science community. These new models are summarized and evaluated Biblically and scientifically. Rather than demonstrating how our solar system formed, the new migration models can be understood as supporting the intelligent design of our solar system.

Creation time coordinates solution to the starlight problem

T.G. Tenev, J. Baumgardner, M.F. Horstemeyer

Discipline: Astronomy

Abstract: We present a solution for the distant starlight problem that is consistent with Scripture, Special Relativity, and observations of a young cosmos. It is based on a special divine choice of initial conditions and a synchrony convention. The initial conditions constrain the spacetime coordinates of all stellar creation events (Genesis 1:17) to be just outside the past light cone of Earth's Day Four but within the past light cone of Earth's Day Five while also being causally independent from one another. The synchrony convention interprets God's numbering of the creation days in Genesis 1 as prescribing a time coordinate for each location in the cosmos, a coordinate we call its Creation Time Coordinate (CTC). The CTC at a given star is defined as the elapsed time since that star was created plus three days. Two events are considered simultaneous (synchronous) if and only if they have the same CTCs. We show that for this choice of initial conditions and synchrony convention, starlight emitted on Day Four (stellar CTC) arrives at Earth also on Day Four (Earth CTC). Our solution is a reformulation of Lisle's solution (Newton, 2001, Lisle, 2010), but ours spells out the required initial conditions, without which Lisle's solution is ambiguous. It also replaces Lisle's use of the Anisotropic Synchrony Convention, which is an observer-specific subjective definition of simultaneity, with the CTC synchrony convention, which is a divinely-prescribed objective definition of simultaneity. Our solution predicts that stellar objects should appear youthful, because the light we receive from them displays them at only a few thousand years after their creation. We show for our own galaxy the number of observed supernova remnants and observed supernova frequency support this prediction. Finally, we note strong agreement among current creationist cosmologies regarding spacetime coordinates of stellar creation events relative to Earth's creation.

A survey of Cenozoic mammal baramins

C. Thompson, T.C. Wood

Discipline: Biology

Abstract: To expand the sample of statistical baraminology studies, we identified 80 datasets sampled from 29 mammalian orders, from which we performed 82 separate analyses. We analyzed each dataset with standard statistical baraminology techniques: baraminic distance correlation (BDC) and multidimensional scaling (MDS). We evaluated the BDC and MDS results from each character set for potential continuity and discontinuity. We found evidence of holobaramins in 57 of the 82 analyses (69.5%). Of the remaining character sets, three showed evidence of monobaramins and 22 (26.8%) were inconclusive. These results are consistent with previous efforts to test the discontinuity hypothesis, which found that a majority of character sets showed evidence of holobaramins. Tentative holobaramins represent 57 taxonomic groups, many of which have not been previously analyzed by statistical baraminology. Together with previously identified holobaramins, this study increases the number of putative mammal holobaramins to 64.

Interstitial telomeres and chromosome 2 fusion

J.P. Tomkins

Discipline: Biology

Abstract: Evolutionists allege that human chromosome 2 is the product of an ancient fusion event in an ancient hominid ancestor descended from apes. However, both the alleged site of fusion and the so-called cryptic centromere of human chromosome 2 are situated inside active genes negating the idea of fusion. Not only are the alleged genomic fossils of fusion representative of functional intragenic sequence, but they are also both highly degenerate versions of their supposed evolutionary beginnings, suggesting something other than an evolutionary origin. Given that these data strongly refute an evolutionary fusion scenario, it behooves creationists to propose an alternative model for the functional nature of telomere-like sequences scattered around the internal regions of human chromosomes. Towards this end, new data based on ENOCODE project data sets is provided that further elucidates the regulatory role of interstitial telomeric repeat sequences genome-wide, particularly with respect to their transcription factor binding domain properties and transcription start site associations.

The Coconino Sandstone

J.H. Whitmore, P.A. Garner

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: The Permian Coconino Sandstone is one of the most prominent layers of rock in the Grand Canyon and is important to creationists because it has often been used by conventional scientists to discredit the Bible since it is a supposed wind-blown (eolian) deposit. Their argument is that deposits like this would be impossible to form in the midst of a global flood as described in Genesis. Over the past forty years, new data has been collected by us and others that we believe indisputably identifies the Coconino as a subaqueous sandstone'data that will be difficult for our critics to counter. These data include evidence from petrology, fossil footprint studies, sedimentology, regional stratigraphy and soft sediment deformation features. In our studies we found that there are many misconceptions or "urban myths" about the Coconino Sandstone including its grain roundness, grain sorting, grain frosting and angle of cross-bed dips. There are no modern analogs that match the precise sedimentology of the Coconino, but we believe that subaqueous sand waves may be a start in the right direction to understand how the Coconino was deposited. Instead of the Coconino being a problem for creationists, it can be one of our most powerful arguments in support of the biblical account of the Flood. There are many other similar cross-bedded sandstones around the world; the Coconino may be the key to unlocking their origin as well.

K-feldspar in ancient cross-bedded sandstones

J.H. Whitmore, R. Strom

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: We studied the petrology of a number small ergs in the western United States, beach and dune sands along the California and Oregon coastlines and cross-bedded sandstones from the western United States and Great Britain. In our studies of these sandstones, many of which are purported in the conventional literature to be eolian, we frequently encountered angular K-feldspar sand grains. In our literature review and in our own observations along the California and Oregon coastlines, we found that fluvial and shoreline processes are not sufficient to cause rounding of sand grains of any type, even after energetic longshore transport or frequent tidal activity. Conversely, when sand grains are picked up by eolian processes and transported to coastal dunes they are quickly rounded, even over short distances. K-feldspar is rounded faster than quartz because it is softer and cleaves easier. We frequently encountered rounded K-feldspar grains in the small ergs we examined despite many of them being close in proximity to sources of angular K-feldspar sand grains. In larger ergs, all types of sand grains become quickly rounded (angular grains can occur if there are local fluvial or coastal sources for them). The frequency of angular K-feldspar grains that we found in cross-bedded sandstones purported to be eolian causes us to question whether these deposits are truly eolian. Angular K-feldspar may be a reliable petrographic criterion for identifying ancient fluvial and marine deposits. Coupled with other criteria, angular K-feldspar sand grains are a crucial piece of data creationists can use to argue that these sandstones are aqueous rather than eolian.

George McCready Price

K.P. Wise

Discipline: History

Abstract: George McCready Price (1870-1963) was the leading young-life creationist of the first half of the twentieth century. Largely self-taught, Price shared his creationist views in more than two dozen books and more than 800 articles' mostly intended for the lay believer. Price argued that true science involves deriving absolute truths by inductive syllogism from known truths. Price believed the Creation Week was 144 consecutive hours in length, six or seven thousand years ago, and everything on the earth was created in that Creation Week. Price believed the creation was created in the state of perfection and that natural evil entered the world at the Fall of man. Price believed the only natural group of organisms, the created kind (what he called the "natural species" when he was being careful), was at about the taxonomic level of genus or family, and could be identified by successful hybridization. Except in the high altitudes, Price believed the entire pre-Flood world enjoyed a sub-tropical climate and supported a biota of much greater size and beauty than the biota of the present world. Price believed the Genesis Flood was global and was caused by some sort of upheaval of the oceans- possibly the sloshing back and forth of the oceans as the earth sustained a sudden, axis-changing astronomical impact. Price believed that all Phanerozoic sediments were formed in the Flood, and organisms were buried close to their pre-Flood habitation. Price believed that the global biostratigraphic column was artificially arranged according to organismal development, reversals of that order are due to normal sedimentation (not post-depositional thrust faults), and most so-called "extinct" organisms are actually identical to modern organisms. Price believed that a sudden freeze was somehow associated with the Flood (to explain frozen mammoths), and the warm pre-Flood ocean water in inland seas caused a regional ice age in the years following the Flood. Price believed created kinds diversified largely by splitting and differentiation following the Flood. Price believed the post-Flood Cro-Magnon people are the oldest humans from which we have evidence, and all other hominoids (fossil and living, ape and human) are degenerate humans. Price also believed that God created languages and races and gave them to different people groups spreading out from Babel. Finally, Price believed that human civilization has degenerated from its highest form in Eden.

Price's geological ideas formed the core of the geological arguments of Whitcomb and Morris's The Genesis Flood, but without appropriate citation. Many of the discussions of modern creationism are similar to ideas Price shared a century or more ago. Although many of current creationist discussions are likely to be derived from Price, not only is this not obvious, but much valuable discussion has been lost. Creationists should reconstruct their intellectual history and thus enrich current discussions.

A host of Price's claims are echoed in modern creationist discussions. Many of those discussions may turn out to be derived from Price's ideas and this intellectual heritage should be studied in detail. Price's philosophy of science, for example, seems to be echoed in such things as the creationist tendency to present anti-evolutionary arguments rather than build models, the preference of quantitative over non-quantitative research approaches, and the adoption of positivist definitions of science. Price's climatology seems to be echoed in such things as adherence to the canopy model, associations of warm climate with large body size, and discussions about the nature and timing of the ice age. Price's biology seems to be echoed in such things as creationists' use of Mayr's biological species definition, references to "natural limits to variation" and "living fossils", and post-Flood diversification by segregation of genetic information. Price's geology seems to be echoed in such things as the rejection of the biostratigraphic column and disputes about the location of the Flood/post-Flood boundary in the stratigraphic record.

Devotional Biology

K.P. Wise, J. Francis, N.A. Doran, A.J. Fabich, S. Hartz, T. Hennigan

Discipline: Education

Abstract: Devotional Biology is being developed as a one-semester college-level conceptual biology textbook for non-science majors. Except for presenting a survey of organisms and an introduction to organismal anatomy and physiology (typically reserved for a second-semester course), Devotional Biology covers all the major topics of biology presented in secular texts as well as a few others not usually covered at all. Student surveys indicate students believe they learn biology through the Devotional Biology text. At the same time, Devotional Biology presents biology from the perspective of a distinctly biblical worldview- and on surveys, Devotional Biology students believe they improved their appreciation and love of biology as well. Devotional Biology also focuses on God, and how His attributes are evident in the biological world- and on surveys, Devotional Biology students believe they improved their recognition of God in the creation, their understanding of God, their relationship to God, and their use of the creation in witness to others. Devotional Biology also assumes a young-age creationist interpretation of biology, critiquing the naturalistic perspective of the field in the process- and on surveys, Devotional Biology students believe they grew in their faith and learned to defend their faith. Devotional Biology also includes responsibilities of believers as priests and kings in God's creation- and on surveys, Devotional Biology students believe they grew in their understanding of themselves and their purpose, in their ethical responsibilities, in their worship of God, in making ethical decisions, and in better ruling over the creation.

Tree-ring chronology shortening via disturbances

J. Woodmorappe

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: The Disturbance-Clustering hypothesis, first introduced here, posits that geographically-demarcated subtly-perturbed tree rings had induced the affected trees to crossmatch not in accordance with climatic signals, as is assumed in conventional dendrochronology. They instead crossmatch only within a geographic cluster of like-perturbed trees, and not with those of other clusters or with any of the remaining unaffected climatically-governed trees. During chronology-building, these clusters became connected with each other, into an artificially-long chronology, by means of rarely-occurring fortuitously-crossmatching "bridge" series. An experiment involving fifteen ostensibly heterochronous ancient trees graphically supports this hypothesis. Merely one-per-decade individual-ring perturbations induce all fifteen series to form a self-clustering, robust false master chronology (common variance), moreover to which each series crossmatches to an almost-entirely-convincing degree (nearly all satisfying all the important statistics, and including segment-by-segment correspondence of the curves). Significantly, and as experimentally demonstrated in this paper, at least 3 of every 10 disturbances can be omitted in some series, and a robust master chronology still develops. What's more, the construction of the master chronology is not dependent upon the presence of any series that has the full complement of disturbances. Clearly, modestly-disturbed series could adequately have served as the "core" of a cluster of disturbed trees, just as required by the Disturbance-Clustering hypothesis.
Furthermore, the previously-introduced now-called Migrating-Disturbance hypothesis does not require a literal repetition of events in time. A lateral movement of disturbances over centuries is sufficient, as is illustrated.
The Swedish and Finnish (Lapland) long Scots pine chronologies have a number of internal discontinuities. While not invalidating the chronologies, these discontinuities provide possible clues to their deconstruction.

Ocean floor cooling

W.J. Worraker, R. Ward

Discipline: Geology

Abstract: Given that the earth's ocean basins are geologically young, few areas being older than early Jurassic, and that most creation scientists regard Jurassic rocks as Flood deposits, these basins must have formed during and since the Flood, i.e. within no more than 4500 years. This paper represents a first attempt at modelling ocean basin formation by the separation of the continents and cooling of the lava erupting at spreading centres well within that limited time. We use a spreadsheet-based finite difference solution of the heat diffusion equation applied to a simple widely-used plate model of ocean lithosphere formation. Having verified our model by reproducing in detail the results of published uniformitarian calculations, we use it to demonstrate the effects of enhanced heat conduction and of a variety of heat sinks, both uniform and tailored in space and time, within a biblical time scale. Enhanced heat conduction is physically unrealistic and delivers an overwhelming heat load to the oceans, thus requiring two extraordinary changes to normal physics. A tailored heat sink reproduces surface heat flux and bathymetry profiles of the observed general forms, but predicted heat fluxes in the broad near-ridge region are far too high, and ridge profiles are too sharp. These problems stem from the presence of an apparently unavoidable near-surface thermal boundary layer. Including more realistic initial conditions and taking account of hitherto neglected geophysical processes (e.g. phase changes during magma depressurization, water production and fluid convection) to construct more sophisticated models are suggested as possible ways forward from this impasse.